In any type of construction, there are general use products and specialized products. When attaching two different materials to create a composite structure, such as a concrete and steel bridge deck or building, specific studs are used to fix the two together.
These studs, known as shear connectors or shear studs, are specially designed for this purpose. They are a specific diameter and length to support the weight and the shear force and prevent the composite structure from sagging, twisting or moving independently of each other.
The action of the composite structure is as if it was one solid part or component. This composite structure is stronger than their steel or concrete, which is why it is ideal for both bridge decks and large or small concrete and steel buildings. It is interesting to note without the use of shear studs, simply pouring concrete over the steel, the same strength is not realized, and the entire structure is less stable.
The Basics Of Use
All shear studs have a rounded, thicker head and an unthreaded shaft. The head is welded to the steel using a drawn arc weld stud system. This includes the use of a ceramic ferrule that encircles the head and prevents the molten material from moving out from the head when the stud is plunged down in the process.
After the weld has cooled, the ferrule is simply knocked off, leaving a uniform, complete and full weld. For angles, there are specially designed stud weld and ferrule combinations.
Each project will require a specific length and diameter based on the shear force, the tensile stress, fatigue loading calculations as well as the thickness of the concrete and the type of steel beam in use. These calculations are done through the project engineers and must conform to all construction standards and regulations.